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Religious and Political Upheaval in Europe During the Medieval Period
Readers will surely like this essay inasmuch as an extensive discussion of the political and religious upheavals in Europe are clearly presented in it. My History professor gave me a “high pass” mark in this discussion paper.
|language || ||english
|wordcount || ||5166 (cca 14 pages)
|contextual quality || ||N/A
|language level || ||N/A
|price || ||free
|sources || ||12
Table of contents
The Medieval Church and Its Decline 1
England and France and the Hundred Years War 6
Spain and Portugal Unified 10
The German Dilemma 11
Preview of the essay: Religious and Political Upheaval in Europe During the Medieval Period
RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL UPHEAVAL IN EUROPE DURING THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD Introduction In Europe the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were marked by a decline of those institutions and ideas which we think of as typical “medieval” and which had their high point during the preceding two centuries. In thought and art an empty formalism replaced the creative forces which had given the Middle Ages such unique methods of expression as Scholasticism and the Gothic style. Economic and social progress gave way to depression and social strife, with peasant revolts a characteristic symptom of instability. The universal Church experienced a disintegration similar to that which had already fatally weakened its great medieval rival, the Holy Roman Empire. The Church’s prestige was gravely weakened from within by criticism of reformers heretics, while external factors, chiefly political and economic, undermined its power and authority. By the sixteenth century these forces would be strong enough to bring about the Protestant and Catholic reformations. Despite crisis and setbacks- the Hundred Years’ War came close to wiping out the gains made earlier by French and English monarchs- the process of nation-making continued during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In Western Europe the contrasting political ...
... helped make the Hapsburgs the most potent force in sixteenth-century Europe by taking to wife Mary of Burgundy, heiress of the rich Low Countries, and by marrying his son to the heiress of Spain.
Inspired by the rise of the new monarchies elsewhere, Maximilian attempted to strengthen his power. His program for a national court system, army, and taxation, was frustrated by the German princes who insisted on jealously guarding what they called “German freedom.” The emperor continued to be limited in power; nor did the empire have an imperial treasury, an efficient central administration, or a standing army. And so the Phantom Holy Roman Empire lived on as Voltaire characterized it: “Neither Holy, Roman, Nor an Empire.”
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